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二氯甲烷的好处有哪些?

发布来源:http://www.jinhao360.com    更新时间:2020-09-29 点击数:

二氯甲烷的分子式:CH2Cl2。无色透明液体,有性气息。微溶于水,溶于乙醇和。是不可燃低沸点溶剂,常用来替代易燃的石油醚、等。

The molecular formula of dichloromethane is CH2Cl2. Colorless transparent liquid with sexual smell. It is slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol and. It is a nonflammable solvent with low boiling point. It is often used to replace flammable petroleum ether, etc.
用处:
Use:
二氯甲烷具有溶解才能强和毒性低的优点,大量用于制造安全电影胶片、聚碳酸酯,其他用作涂料溶剂、金属脱脂剂,气烟雾放射剂、聚氨酯发泡剂、脱模剂、脱漆剂。二氯甲烷为无色液体,在制药工业中做反应介质,用于制备氨苄青霉素、羟苄青霉素和先锋霉素等;还用作胶片生产中的溶剂、石油脱蜡溶剂、气溶胶推进剂、有机合成萃取剂、聚氨酯等泡沫塑料生产用发泡剂和金属清洗剂等。
It can be used as defoamer of polycarbonate, defoamer of film and film, and can be used as solvent of defoamer and defoamer of polycarbonate, film and film. Dichloromethane, a colorless liquid, is used as a reaction medium in the pharmaceutical industry for the preparation of ampicillin, benzylpenicillin and cephalosporin. It is also used as solvent, oil dewaxing solvent, aerosol propellant, organic synthesis extractant, polyurethane and other foaming agents and metal cleaning agents in film production.
二氯甲烷在中国主要用于胶片生产和医药范畴。其中用于胶片生产的生产量占总生产量的50%,医面占总生产量的20%,清洗剂及化工行业生产量占总生产量的20%,其他方面占10%。二氯甲烷也用在工业制冷系统中用作载冷剂运用,但危害很大,与明火或灼热的物体接触时能产生剧毒的。遇湿润空气能水解生成微量的氯化氢,光照亦能促进水解而对金属的腐蚀性加强。
Dichloromethane is mainly used in film production and medicine in China. Among them, 50% of the total production is used for film production, 20% for medical noodles, 20% for cleaning agent and chemical industry, and 10% for others. Dichloromethane is also used as a carrier refrigerant in industrial refrigeration system, but it is very harmful. It can produce highly toxic when contacting with open fire or hot objects. When wet air can hydrolyze to produce trace hydrogen chloride, light can also promote hydrolysis and strengthen the corrosion of metal.
二氯甲烷的应急措施
Emergency measures for dichloromethane

二氯甲烷在运用过程中需求当心慎重,由于它具有风险特性,假如在运用过程中发作走漏,应依据详细状况采取相应的应急措施,它都有哪些详细措施呢?
Dichloromethane in the use process needs to be careful, because of its risk characteristics, if leakage occurs in the use process, corresponding emergency measures should be taken according to the detailed situation. What are the detailed measures?
1、切断火源。2、尽可能切断走漏源,避免流入下水道、排洪沟等性空间。3、疾速撤离走漏污染区人员至安全区,并进行,严厉出入。4、倡议应急处置人员戴自给正压式呼吸器,穿防毒服。5、小量走漏:用砂土或其它不燃资料吸附或吸收。6、大量走漏:构筑围堤或挖坑收留,用泡沫掩盖,降低蒸气灾祸;用泵转移至槽车或专用搜集器内,回收或运至废物处置场所处置。
1. Cut off the fire. 2. Cut off the leakage source as much as possible to avoid flowing into sewer, flood discharge ditch and other sexual space. 3. Quickly evacuate the personnel from the leakage contaminated area to the safe area, and strictly enter and exit. 4. It is suggested that emergency disposal personnel should wear self-contained positive pressure respirator and anti-virus clothing. 5. Small amount of leakage: adsorption or absorption with sand or other incombustible data. 6, a large number of leaks: build a dike or dig a hole to retain, cover with foam, reduce steam disaster; transfer the pump to the tank car or special collector, recover or transport to the disposal place of waste disposal.
二氯甲烷与明火或灼热的物体接触时能产生剧毒的,遇湿润空气能水解生成微量的氯化氢,释放出的与氯化氢都具有毒性,所以在运用过程中要当心当心再当心。
Dichloromethane and open fire or hot objects contact can produce highly toxic, when wet air can be hydrolyzed to produce a trace of hydrogen chloride, released and hydrogen chloride are toxic, so in the process of use, be careful and careful.
二氯甲烷尾气回收的办法
Recovery method of dichloromethane tail gas
由于二氯甲烷沸点低、易挥发,在被真空泵抽出的过程中会分发到空气中,产生损失并伤害人体、污染环境。有什么更好的办法来回收含有二氯甲烷的尾气么?
Due to its low boiling point and volatile nature, dichloromethane will be distributed to the air in the process of being pumped out by vacuum pump, which will cause damage to human body and pollute the environment. Is there a better way to recover the tail gas containing dichloromethane?
1、吸收法
1. Absorption method
吸收法是将尾气与吸收剂接触,或采取喷淋、逆流等方式,在吸收塔内完成,吸收液有柴油、DOP等高沸点溶剂,也可用添加助溶剂、凝聚剂的水。吸收法合适中高浓度(2g/m3以上)和中小排风量(104m3/h以下)的管理,对低浓度、大风量废气管理效率低。吸收法存在吸收液的后处置费事、会带来二次污染和二次管理等问题。
The absorption method is to contact the tail gas with the absorbent, or spray or counter current in the absorption tower. The absorption liquid includes diesel oil, DOP and other high boiling point solvents, or water added with cosolvent and coagulant. The absorption method is suitable for the management of medium and high concentration (above 2G / m3) and medium and small exhaust air volume (below 104m3 / h), and has low management efficiency for low concentration and large air volume waste gas. There are some problems in the absorption method, such as the post disposal of absorption solution, secondary pollution and secondary management.
2、冷凝法
2. Condensation method
冷凝法是应用二氯甲烷在不同温度下的饱和蒸汽压的不同,经过降温的办法使气体冷凝回收。其优点是设备简单、易操作。是只适用于高浓度的气体。冷凝法普通只作为预处置办法运用。
Condensation method is to use dichloromethane at different temperatures of saturated vapor pressure is different, through cooling method to condense gas recovery. It has the advantages of simple equipment and easy operation. It is only suitable for high concentration gas. Condensation method is usually used only as a pre-treatment method.
3、综合法
3. Synthesis method
从应用状况来看,单一法较适于气体量小、污染物浓度高的气体,但关于目前国内许多工艺过程产生的气量大、低浓度的二氯甲烷废气来说,单一法的净化管理工艺主要存在2个:一是净化设备运转耗能与高运转费用问题在此条件下较为突出,本钱和费用较高;二是有些工艺存在效率不高和二次污染问题,处置效果也不能令人称心,从而影响了工艺的大面积推行和应用。目前,在制药生产中,将两种或两种以上单一法进行分离,用于二氣甲烷尾气的回收。
From the application situation, the single method is more suitable for the gas with small amount of gas and high concentration of pollutants. However, there are two main problems in the purification and management process of single method for dichloromethane waste gas with large gas volume and low concentration produced by many domestic processes: first, the problems of energy consumption and high operation cost of purification equipment operation are more prominent under this condition, and the cost and cost are higher; second, the waste gas generated by many domestic processes is high Some processes have the problems of low efficiency and secondary pollution, and the disposal effect is not satisfactory, which affects the large-scale implementation and application of the process. At present, in pharmaceutical production, two or more single methods are used for the recovery of methane tail gas.
4、吸附法
4. Adsorption method
吸附法是用活性炭对二氯甲烷尾气进行吸附净化,特别对低浓度尾气的吸附,是好的办法。该办法的吸附较好,吸附后的用水蒸气进行脱附,冷凝回收。吸附回收法合适处置的是高浓度(2g/m3以上)单组份,而关于多组份及易溶于水的溶剂用该法处置后需进行后续精馏。用该办法处置后的尾气能到达排放规范,对环境管理有较大的意义。
Adsorption method is to use activated carbon to adsorb and purify dichloromethane tail gas, especially for low concentration tail gas. The adsorption of this method is better, and the water vapor after adsorption is desorbed and condensed for recovery. High concentration (above 2G / m3) single component is suitable to be disposed by adsorption recovery method, while the multi-component and water-soluble solvents need to be further rectified after being disposed by this method. The tail gas treated by this method can reach the emission standard, which is of great significance to environmental management.
平常我们在对二氯甲烷尾气进行回收处置的时分,应该加强气体自身的回收开展作用,做好整体处置及运用,从而到达加强运用效果的作用。
In general, when we recycle and dispose of dichloromethane tail gas, we should strengthen the recovery and development of the gas itself, do a good job in the overall treatment and application, so as to achieve the effect of strengthening the use.

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