At present, there are six main preparation methods of Cyclohexylamine in the world, namely, aniline catalytic hydrogenation under normal pressure and pressure, Nitrocyclohexane reduction, chlorocyclohexane catalytic ammoniation, Cyclohexene direct ammoniation, Cyclohexanone catalytic ammoniation, Cyclohexanol catalytic ammoniation.
There are four production processes of Cyclohexylamine, namely, aniline hydrogenation reduction, Cyclohexanol catalytic ammoniation, Cyclohexanone catalytic ammoniation, and Nitrocyclohexane reduction; At present, the main industrialization methods in the world are the first two routes, and different countries choose different raw material routes due to different raw material prices.
In China, aniline catalytic hydrogenation is generally used to synthesize Cyclohexylamine, and Dicyclohexylamine is co produced. According to different reaction conditions and catalysts, different proportions of Cyclohexylamine and Dicyclohexylamine can be obtained. If no deliberate adjustment is made, about 10% of Dicyclohexylamine can be produced by by-product.
Aniline catalytic hydrogenation under atmospheric and pressurized conditions
The catalysts for the catalytic hydrogenation of aniline to Cyclohexylamine and Dicyclohexylamine can be classified into cobalt, ruthenium, nickel and palladium based on the main active elements.
Catalytic ammoniation of Nitrocyclohexane
The raw material of Nitrocyclohexane is not easy to obtain, and there are few data reports.
Catalytic ammonolysis of chlorocyclohexane
Although the raw materials for chlorocyclohexane are not difficult to obtain, the process route is elongated, and hydrogen chloride is present in the product, requiring high equipment requirements. There are few reported materials.
Direct ammoniation of Cyclohexene
with β- With zeolite as catalyst, NH3: C6H10=1.5, under the process condition of 55MPa pressure and 300 ℃ temperature, the reaction time is 16 hours, and the single pass yield of Cyclohexylamine is 7.1%, so the yield is very low. However, the direct ammoniation of Cyclohexene still has the disadvantages of low conversion rate, low utilization rate of equipment and high requirements for reaction conditions.
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