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氢氧化钾的用途及使用方法!

发布来源:http://www.jinhao360.com    更新时间:2019-04-17 点击数:

  无机工业用作生产钾盐,如高锰酸钾、亚硝酸钾、磷酸氢二钾等的原料。日化工业用作制造钾肥皂、洗污肥皂、洗头软皂、雪花膏、冷霜、洗发膏等的原料。制药工业用于制造黄体酮、香兰素等原料。染料工业用于制造三聚氰胺染料。电池工业用于制造碱性蓄电地。[4]

  Inorganic industry is used as raw materials for the production of potassium salts, such as potassium permanganate, potassium nitrite, potassium hydrogen phosphate, etc. The daily chemical industry is used as raw materials for making potassium soap, washing soap, shampoo soft soap, snow cream, cold cream, shampoo, etc. Pharmaceutical industry is used to produce progesterone, vanillin and other raw materials. The dyestuff industry is used to make melamine dyes. The battery industry is used to make alkaline batteries. [4]
  用作皂化试剂、二氧化碳和水分的吸收剂,分析试剂,碱性剂;可用作制品发色剂,冶金加热剂和皮革脱脂等方面;用作干燥剂、吸收剂,还用于电镀、雕刻、石印术等;
  It can be used as saponification reagent, carbon dioxide and water absorbent, analytical reagent, alkaline reagent, product chromogenic agent, metallurgical heater and leather degreasing, drying agent, absorbent, electroplating, engraving, lithography, etc.
  氢氧化钾可从电解高纯度的氯化钾水溶液制得。所用的电解槽形式以及生产过程类似氢氧化钠。使用隔膜电解槽时,所得的电解液含有10%~15%(质量)的氢氧化钾和约10%(质量)的氯化钾。经蒸发、浓缩、冷却,大部分的氯化钾结晶析出,分离后得到含氢氧化钾45%~50%的产品(含氯化钾0.6%)。采用水银电解法可以制得高纯度的氢氧化钾,但应控制氯化钾水溶液中重金属杂质的含量在0.1ppm以下,以免氯气中含氢过高。采用离子膜电解法须使用专用的离子交换膜。氢氧化钾比氢氧化钠难于脱水。工业固体氢氧化钾的纯度为88%~92%,固体有块状和片状两种。液体氢氧化钾有45%和50%两种浓度规格。
  Potassium hydroxide can be prepared by electrolysis of high purity potassium chloride aqueous solution. The type of cell used and the production process are similar to sodium hydroxide. When using diaphragm cell, the electrolyte obtained contains 10%-15%(mass) potassium hydroxide and 10%(mass) potassium chloride. After evaporation, concentration and cooling, most potassium chloride crystallizes and precipitates. After separation, products containing 45%-50% potassium hydroxide (containing 0.6% potassium chloride) are obtained. High purity potassium hydroxide can be prepared by mercury electrolysis, but the content of heavy metal impurities in potassium chloride aqueous solution should be controlled below 0.1 ppm to avoid excessive hydrogen content in chlorine gas. Special ion exchange membranes should be used in ion exchange membrane electrolysis. Potassium hydroxide is more difficult to dehydrate than sodium hydroxide. The purity of industrial solid potassium hydroxide is 88%~92%. There are two kinds of solid: block and flake. There are 45% and 50% liquid potassium hydroxide concentration specifications.
  1、隔膜电解法原料氯化钾在化盐槽溶化成饱和溶液,加热至90 ℃时分别加入碳酸钾、苛性钾、氯化钡除去钙、镁和硫酸根等杂质,经沉降除渣、盐酸中和、精制的含氯化钾280~315 g/L的氯化钾溶液经预热到70~75 ℃后进行电解,得氢氧化钾、氯气和氢气。隔膜法所得氢氧化钾浓度为10%~11%,需通过蒸发浓缩和冷却澄清,制得含45%~50%氢氧化钾溶液;也可继续在熬碱锅中浓缩,经脱色,制得固体氢氧化钾,或经制片成片状氢氧化钾产品。
  1. The raw material of diaphragm electrolysis, potassium chloride, dissolves into saturated solution in the salt bath. Potassium carbonate, caustic potassium and barium chloride are added to remove impurities such as calcium, magnesium and sulfate at 90 ~C. The refined potassium chloride solution containing 280-315 g/L of potassium chloride is neutralized by hydrochloric acid and preheated to 70-75 ~C. Potassium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen are obtained. The concentration of potassium hydroxide obtained by diaphragm method is 10%-11%. The solution containing 45%-50% potassium hydroxide is prepared by evaporation, concentration and cooling clarification. The solid potassium hydroxide can also be obtained by continuous concentration in soda boiling pot and decolorization, or by flaking into flakes of potassium hydroxide products.
  2KCl+2H?O=电解=2KOH+H?↑+Cl?↑
  2KCl+2H?O=electrolysis=2KOH+H?+Cl?
  2、水银电解法电解液的配制同隔膜电解法。电解室中以石墨(或金属)作阳极,水银作阴极,电解产生的氯气送氯气干燥工序,生成的钾汞齐流入解汞室。大部分未反应的氯化钾以淡盐水状态经处理后,返回原料溶解工序。钾汞齐与清水反应生成氢氧化钾和氢气。因解汞室出来的氢氧化钾浓度为45%~50%,可作为液体氢氧化钾产品,也可再经熬碱锅蒸浓成固碱或制成片状氢氧化钾产品。
  2. Preparation of electrolyte for mercury electrolysis and diaphragm electrolysis. Graphite (or metal) is used as the anode and mercury as the cathode in the electrolysis chamber. The chlorine gas produced by the electrolysis is sent to the chlorine gas drying process, and the potassium amalgam produced is flowed into the chamber. Most unreacted potassium chloride is treated in dilute brine and returned to the raw material dissolution process. Potassium amalgam reacts with clear water to produce potassium hydroxide and hydrogen. The concentration of potassium hydroxide from the mercury dissolving chamber is 45%-50%. It can be used as liquid potassium hydroxide product, and can be steamed and concentrated into solid alkali or flake potassium hydroxide product by boiling soda pot.
氢氧化钾
  3、工业上制取氢氧化钾是电解氯化钾的水溶液。因为氢氧化钾比氢氧化钠难脱水,市售品的纯度一般只能达到85%~86%。如需提纯可按照提纯氢氧化钠的相同的方法进行提纯。
  3. Industrial production of potassium hydroxide is an aqueous solution of electrolytic potassium chloride. Because potassium hydroxide is more difficult to dehydrate than sodium hydroxide, the purity of commercial products can only reach 85%-86%. Purification can be carried out in the same way as the purification of sodium hydroxide.
  4、氯化钾经精制后,预热,不断注入电解槽中,电解生成液经浓缩、脱色而得。
  4. After refining, potassium chloride is preheated and continuously injected into the electrolyzer. The electrolyte is concentrated and decolorized.
  5、采用离子交换膜法,以工业品氢氧化钾作为阳极室物质,纯水作为阴极室物质,在直流场作用下,K+离子透过具有选择性的阳膜进入阴极室与OH-离子生成试剂氢氧化钾,经浓缩、干燥得固体氢氧化钾。气体产物 O2 、H2 分别由导管排出。
  5. Using ion exchange membrane method, using industrial potassium hydroxide as anode chamber material and pure water as cathode chamber material, under the action of DC field, K + ion enters the cathode chamber through selective anode membrane to form reagent potassium hydroxide with OH-ion, which is concentrated and dried to obtain solid potassium hydroxide. The gas products O 2 and H 2 are discharged from the catheter respectively.
  6、通过高温加热碳酸钙生成氧化钙,氧化钙与水反应生成氢氧化钙,氢氧化钙与草木灰反应生成氢氧化钾
  6. Calcium hydroxide is produced by heating calcium carbonate at high temperature. Calcium hydroxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide reacts with plant ash to form potassium hydroxide.
  CaCO?=高温=CaO+CO?↑
  CaCO?= High temperature = CaO+CO?
  CaO+H?O=Ca(OH)?
  CaO + H? O = Ca (OH)?
  Ca(OH)?+K?CO?=CaCO?↓+2KOH
  Ca(OH)?+K?CO?=CaCO?+2K OH
  如果您有氢氧化钾的相关需求可以点击我们的官网进行咨询:http://www.jinhao360.com
  If you have the relevant needs of potassium hydroxide, you can click on our official website for consultation: http://www.jinhao360.com.

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