Button batteries contain potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. It is invaded by respiratory tract, digestive tract and skin. LD273 mg/kg via oral cavity in rats. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkaline substance, which can dissolve protein, soften and necrosis the contact tissue, and penetrate deep within a few days. The oral LD50 of KOH solution was 365 mg/kg in rats. After oral poisoning, digestive tract pain, vomiting, diarrhea and shock may occur. Vomit contains blood and scattered epithelium. Severe cases may cause gastrointestinal perforation. After several weeks or months, esophageal stricture can occur, causing difficulty in swallowing. Acute poisoning of potassium hydroxide dust or smoke can cause chemical upper respiratory tract inflammation. Eye contact with concentrated potassium hydroxide solution can cause conjunctival edema and corneal ulcer. Oral poisoning is quickly neutralized by edible vinegar or orange juice or lemon juice, followed by egg white water, milk and vegetable oil. Prevent gastric lavage or vomiting to avoid perforation. Fasting. If suspected of upper digestive tract corrosion, esophagoscopy should be stopped within 24 hours.
The formula is KOH, white crystal. Saturated vapor pressure (kPa): 0.13 (719 C). Soluble in water, ethanol, slightly soluble in ether. Easy to deliquescence and absorb carbon dioxide. Its chemical properties are similar to that of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and its aqueous solution is strongly alkaline, which can destroy cell tissues. Hydrate with 4 molecules of water. Solid potassium hydroxide produces heat when it meets water or steam, which will make flammable substances reach extinction temperature. Therefore, it should be stored in a dry place. It can make litmus test solution blue and phenolphthalein test solution red. If with, sulfuric acid, reaction. If with carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide reaction. For example, it reacts with aluminium. If it reacts with alumina. In addition, potassium hydroxide can produce other reactions, such as reacting with white phosphorus to produce gas. Inorganic industry is used as raw materials for consumption of potassium salts, such as potassium hydride and potassium hydrogen phosphate. The daily chemical industry is used as raw materials for making potassium soap, washing soap, shampoo soft soap, snow cream, cold cream, shampoo, etc. Industry is used for manufacturing, vanillin and other raw materials.
It was synthesized at the beginning of the boiling point and at 1626 ~C. The melting point was 471 ~C and the boiling point was 925 ~C. It is slightly soluble in ethanol, methanol and ether, and 5.3 mol/L in 288K saturated water solution due to exothermic dissolution and higher solution density after dissolution. Can be strong base: Kb = 0.675, pK = 0.17. Monohydrate is monoclinic crystal with solubility of 22.3g/100g water (10 C) and density of 1.51g/cm3. It is strongly alkaline, so its saturated solution can change the structure of phenolphthalein and change the colour of phenolphthalein from colorless to dark red. It is very easy to absorb carbon dioxide in the air. Lithium hydroxide has strong corrosiveness and irritation, and should be sealed for storage. NaOH is commonly known as caustic soda, caustic soda and caustic soda. Sodium hydroxide is widely used. In chemical experiments, besides being used as reagent, it has strong water absorption, can be used for dry gas and alkaline drying agent.