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氢氧化钾的安全风险与应对方法!

发布来源:http://www.jinhao360.com    更新时间:2019-11-07 点击数:

  氢氧化钾又名苛性钾、苛性碱、钾灰,外观为白色粉末或片状固体,是一种常见的化工产品,不论是在工业上还是在实验室中都经常会看见它的身影。但是氢氧化钾属于危险化学品,具有强碱性及腐蚀性,还会造成人体中毒。

  Potassium hydroxide, also known as caustic potash, caustic soda and potassium ash, is a common chemical product with white powder or flake solid appearance. It is often seen in industry or laboratory. However, potassium hydroxide is a dangerous chemical with strong alkalinity and corrosiveness, which can also cause human poisoning.
  强碱性及腐蚀性:其表现为在与皮肤接触时会有烧灼作用,可溶解蛋白质,形成碱性变性蛋白质。溶液或粉尘溅到皮肤上,尤其溅到黏膜,可产生软痂。溶液浓度越高,温度越高,作用越强。溅入眼内,不仅可损伤角膜,而且能使眼部深组织损伤。
  Strong alkalinity and corrosiveness: it can burn when contacting with skin, dissolve protein and form basic denatured protein. Solution or dust splashed on the skin, especially on the mucous membrane, can produce soft scabs. The higher the solution concentration, the higher the temperature and the stronger the effect. Splashing into the eyes can not only damage the cornea, but also damage the deep tissues of the eyes.
  如果我们在使用时不小心发生接触,要迅速进行自救应对:工作时应防止触及皮肤和眼睛,如不慎触及时,可用流水洗涤受损部位,然后湿敷5%的醋酸、酒石酸、盐酸或柠檬酸溶液;如溅人眼内,应用流水或生理盐水仔细缓慢洗涤10~30 min,然后点入2%的奴佛卡因或0.5%的地卡因溶液。操作时应穿由结实布制作的工作服,戴橡皮手套、袖套、围裙,穿胶鞋等劳保用品,手上宜涂敷中性和疏水软膏。
  If contact happens accidentally when we use it, we should quickly carry out self rescue measures: prevent touching the skin and eyes during work, if it is touched in time, wash the damaged part with running water, and then wet 5% acetic acid, tartaric acid, hydrochloric acid or citric acid solution; if it splashes into the eyes, wash it carefully and slowly with running water or physiological saline for 10-30 minutes, and then point in 2% novocaine or 0.5 %Dicaine solution. During operation, workers shall wear work clothes made of strong cloth, rubber gloves, sleeves, apron, rubber shoes and other labor protection appliances, and apply neutral and hydrophobic ointment on their hands.
氢氧化钾
  毒性:长期吸入少量会造成肺损害,其急性毒性为LD50273mg/kg(大鼠经口)。所以一定要避免长时间的从事氢氧化钾相关工作,注意佩戴相应防具,尽量避免食入。如果不小心食入,要立即用水漱口,并用饮牛奶或蛋清,严重者立即就医。
  Toxicity: a small amount of long-term inhalation will cause lung damage, and its acute toxicity is ld50273mg / kg (rat oral). Therefore, it is necessary to avoid engaging in potassium hydroxide related work for a long time, pay attention to wear corresponding protective equipment and try to avoid ingestion. If you don't eat it carefully, rinse your mouth with water immediately and drink milk or egg white. If you are serious, see a doctor immediately.
  由于氢氧化钾还会污染水体,具有爆炸风险,在不慎发生泄露事故时要立即隔离泄漏污染区,限制出入。建议应急处理人员戴防尘面具(全面罩),穿防酸碱工作服。不要直接接触泄漏物。小量泄漏:用洁净的铲子收集于干燥、洁净、有盖的容器中。也可以用大量水冲洗,洗水稀释后放入废水系统。大量泄漏:收集回收或运至废物处理场所处置。
  Because potassium hydroxide can also pollute water body, which has the risk of explosion, in case of leakage accident, it is necessary to immediately isolate the leakage pollution area and restrict access. It is recommended that the emergency treatment personnel wear dust mask (full mask) and acid and alkali resistant work clothes. Do not touch the leakage directly. Small leakage: collect in dry, clean and covered container with clean shovel. It can also be washed with a large amount of water, and then diluted into the waste water system. Large amount of leakage: collected and recovered or transported to the waste disposal site for disposal.

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